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Resume membrane adsorption

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The final advantage using water-glycol mixing solvent is the slurry can be used below the ice point. One can see that, from This result demonstrates that we can get high C 2 H 4 capture efficiency only a little below the ice point. This kind of increase of the sorption capacity might be caused by the capillary condensation of C 2 H 4 in the pores of ZIF-8 at lower temperatures. It should be noted that the rapid increase of the sorption capacity after the circled point shown in Fig.

Although formation of hydrate could increase the sorption ability of slurry, it also increases the viscosity of the system. Hence, it should be controlled deliberately in practical application. Separation of low boiling gas mixtures, e. For CO 2 , we can eliminate the osmotic pressure by adding methylpyrazole mIm to glycol and it could then be separated from other gas species with high efficiency This means they cannot be removed from gas mixture sufficiently using these slurries unless the operation pressure is very high.

As two later slurries have lower viscosities Supplementary Fig. S7 and higher sorption rates, they should be the better choices in practical use with respect to the separation of this kind of gas mixtures. The results are summarized in Fig.

The concentration of C 3 H 6 in gas phase can be decreased from They reached 7. Thus these results are of practical significance. Here we assume that gas components in three phases gas, liquid and solid are in simple thermodynamic equilibrium without the presence of liquid membrane and the liquid absorbent and solid adsorbent in the slurry do not affect each other.

In this case, the selectivity of the slurry is the weighted average of the selectivity of the pure liquid absorbent and that of pure solid adsorbent The calculated results based on the above assumptions are compared with the experimental ones in Supplementary Fig. One can see that the actual selectivity of the slurry are much higher than those of both pure solid ZIF-8 phase and pure water phase as well as the weighted average value of them.

Obviously, the increment of the selectivity of the slurry should be attributed to the role of liquid membranes surrounding ZIF-8 particles. Similar phenomenon has been found in our previous work As C 2 H 4 is very important raw material for the production of large number of chemicals, the low cost separation of C 2 H 4 is strongly concerned by petrochemical industries. In most cases, C 2 H 4 is accompanied by C 2 H 6 in gas mixture, e.

As C 2 H 6 is the best raw material for producing C 2 H 4 , its capture is also very important. The detailed experimental results were shown in Supplementary Table S3 and summarized in Fig. Thus how to increase S C2 is very important. We therefore performed separation experiments at As shown by Supplementary Table S4 , S C2 increased more than three times when temperature decreased from The separation selectivity also increased obviously.

This is consistent with Fig. The dramatic increase of the sorption capacity below the ice point not only implies that we can use a much larger gas-slurry flux ratio, e. The former one was separated under same pressure of 2. The later one was separated under lower pressure of 1. The experimental results for three equilibrium stage separation were shown in Supplementary Table S6.

The whole three-stage separation was summarized in Fig. We can see that through a three-stage separation, C2 can be enriched from As shown in Supplementary Fig. Thus, it will be easy to realize multistage separations like distillation in widely used absorption towers. Essential to any gas capture material is the energy required for gas release. The separation ability of these two kinds of slurries that regenerated under atmosphere pressure and that regenerated by vacuuming at room temperature were shown in Supplementary Tables S7 and S8.

We found the sorption ability of slurry did not change after several times of cycling use. As a matter of fact, most experiments were performed using the regenerated ZIF-8 slurry if we do not need to change the solvent or regenerated ZIF-8 by vacuum vaporing if we need to change the solvent.

The X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscopy images of the regenerated ZIF-8 also show the structure of ZIF-8 is perfectly retained Supplementary Fig. S9 and S From Fig. In fact the particle sizes shown in Fig. S6 are apparent values.

The increment of the apparent particle size when ZIF-8 is suspended in glycol aqueous solution proves the existence of liquid membrane surrounding the ZIF-8 particles in certain extent. Several important insights emerge in this work. When porous material like ZIF-8 suspended in suitable solvents whose molecules are too large to enter the pores of solid particles, solvent molecules self-assemble liquid membrane surrounding solid particles.

Compared with traditional solid membrane, the self-assembly liquid membrane will never be destroyed and its permeability is fully tunable by adjusting the composition of solvent. The strength of the membrane is determined by the interaction between the solvent molecules and the function group on the surface of solid particles.

Just like traditional solid membrane, there also exist obvious and different osmotic pressures between two sides of liquid membrane for different gas molecules. This is attributed to the large difference between the concentration of gas molecules in solvent phase and solid phase, which results in a reverse gas concentration gradient across the liquid membrane, i. Hence a positive excess pressure, i. The strength or permeability of liquid membrane for specific gas species could be tuned aiming at increasing the apparent separation selectivity of the slurry formed by porous material and solvent.

Surrounding ZIF-8 particles, glycol molecules form tighter membrane, indicated by higher osmotic pressures for most gas species lighter than propene. Water molecules form looser film because of the hydrophobic behavior of ZIF-8 and osmotic pressures emerge only for very light gas species like N 2 and H 2.

When using the mixed solvent composed of water and glycol, the osmotic pressure changes with the increase of glycol concentration. By this way, the apparent separation selectivity of ZIF-8 slurry becomes tunable. When tuning the separation selectivity of ZIF-8 slurry, other factors should also be taken into account.

In positive aspect, besides increasing separation selectivity, adding glycol to water makes the slurry more stable and finer. It can also inhibit the emergence of serious foaming during desorption. In addition, it can decrease the freezing point of slurry and allow the slurry to work below the ice point One should balance the positive factors and negative ones when determining the content of glycol.

Due to the membrane effect of liquid film, enhanced separation could be achieved compared with simple absorption or simple adsorption. We believe it can be readily used to separate different kinds of low boiling gas mixtures under or near normal temperature, by applying traditional absorption towers with multiple gas-liquid equilibrating stages. Especially, we found for light hydrocarbons C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , etc.

Materials used in this work include ZIF-8, glycol, water, and feed gases. Analytical grade nitrogen A Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph HP was used to analyze the composition of the prepared gas mixtures. All the ab d sorption measurement experiments were performed using the experimental apparatus as schematically illustrated in Supplementary Fig. A detailed description of the setup can be found in our previous report The key parts of the apparatus are a transparent sapphire cell and a steel-made blind cell, which are both installed in an air bath.

To directly observe samples in the cell, a luminescence source of type LGH is mounted on the outside of the cell. A secondary platinum resistance thermometer type-pt is used as the temperature sensor. A calibrated Heise pressure gauge and differential pressure transducers are used to measure the system pressure. Real-time readings of the system temperature and pressure are recorded by a computer. Before the experiments, the sapphire cell was dismounted from the apparatus, washed with distilled water and dried, then loaded with a known quantity of dry porous material.

After that, a known amount of solvent was immersed into the sapphire cell slowly and evenly. The mixture of porous material and liquid solvent was stirred to form a suspension mixture i. Subsequently, the cell was installed back onto the apparatus. Enough amount of feed gas was injected into the blind cell, then the desired value of temperature was set through the air-bath. Once both temperature and pressure of the blind cell were kept constant, the pressure of gas mixture in the blind cell was recorded as the initial pressure.

The top valve of the sapphire cell was opened slowly then, letting the feed gas flow into the sapphire cell from the blind cell until the pressure in the sapphire cell reached the desired value, which was recorded as. Afterwards, the top valve was closed and the magnetic stirrer was turned on. The pressure of the residual gas in the blind cell was recorded as. With the sorption of the slurry, the pressure in the sapphire cell decreased gradually. During each measurement, the variation of pressure in the sapphire cell with the elapsed time was recorded.

The equilibrium pressure of the sapphire cell was recorded as P E. Gas mixture in the equilibrium gas phase of the sapphire cell was sampled under constant pressure by pushing the connected hand pump and analyzed by a HP gas chromatograph. The volume of the slurry in the sapphire cell can be obtained by measuring the height of the equilibrium liquid phase.

The inner radius of the sapphire cell is known to be 1. In this work, the sorption amount of one gas species in the slurry was determined through mass balance as described below. The total mole number n t of the feed gas mixture that was injected into the sapphire cell is calculated by the following formula:.

The total gas amount n E in the gas phase of the sapphire cell after sorption equilibrium is determined by:. V g is the volume of equilibrium gas phase in the sapphire cell. The total sorption amount of one gas species i in the slurry is calculated as,. Its apparent mole fraction in the equilibrium slurry phase then can be obtained by the following formula:.

The net adsorption amount of one gas species in solid ZIF-8 suspended in solvent is calculated as,. For binary feed gas mixtures, apparent selectivity S of the slurry is calculated with,. The morphologies and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements were obtained using a FEI Quanta F scanning electron microscope.

How to cite this article : Liu, H. Tunable integration of absorption-membrane-adsorption for efficiently separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature. Li, K. Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene. Cooper, J. Cryogenic separation of methane from other hydrocarbons in air. Faiz, R. Desalination , 82—97 Hybrid porous solids: past, present, future.

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Thomas, S. Safarik, D. Kim, H. Yaghi, O. Li, B. Enhanced binding affinity, remarkable selectivity, and high capacity of CO2 by dual functionalization of arht-type metal-organic framework. Furukawa, H. The chemistry and applications of metal-organic frameworks.

Cai, J. A doubly interpenetrated metal-organic framework with open metal sites and suitable pore sizes for highly selective separation of small hydrocarbons at room temperature. Growth Des. Banerjee, R. Control of pore size and functionality in isoreticular zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and their carbon dioxide selective capture properties. Shi, Y. MOF-derived porous carbon for adsorptive desulfurization. AIChE J. Zhou, W. Enhanced H2 adsorption in isostructural metal-organic frameworks with open metal sites: strong dependence of the binding strength on metal ions.

Mancino, G. Microporous metal-organic frameworks incorporating 1,4-benzeneditetrazolate: syntheses, structures and hydrogen storage properties. Liu, Y. High-throughput and comprehensive prediciton of H2 adsorption in metal-organic frameworks under various conditions. AIChE J , doi: High-throughput synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and application to CO2 capture.

Nugent, P. Porous materials with optimal adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics for CO2 separation. Wang, W. Nijem, N. Tuning the gate opening pressure of metal-organic frameworks MOFs for the separation of hydrocarbons. He, Y. High separation capacity and selectivity of C2 hydrocarbons over methane within a microporous metal-organic framework at room temperature. A microporous metal-organic framework for highly selective separation of acetylene, ethylene, and ethane from methane at room temperature.

Metal-organic frameworks with potential for energy-efficient adsorptive separation of light hydrocarbons. Energy Environ. A robust doubly interpenetrated metal-organic framework constructed from a novel aromatic tricarboxylate for highly selective separation of small hydrocarbons.

Pan, L. Separation of hydrocarbons with a microporous metal-organic framework. Article Google Scholar. Bux, H. Li, J. Metal-organic frameworks for separations. Wu, H. The adsorption isotherm was fitted with the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of Said et al. The activated carbon AC acted as adsorbent to adsorb heavy metal present in synthetic waste water. The composite membrane with 0. The percentage of heavy metal reduction by composite membrane with 0.

The concentration of AC plays an important role towards enhancing the adsorption of heavy metal in water. Algarra et al. The membrane was characterized by physicochemical, electrical and transport measurements, and the effect of the dendrimer was established by comparing these results with those obtained for the original cellulosic support.

Katsoyiannis and Zouboulis removed the arsenic via adsorptive filtration using modified polymeric materials polystyrene and polyHIPE by coating their surface with appropriate adsorbing agents i. Bessbousse et al. Hermassi et al. It was reported that the P V recovery profiles as a function of the initial P V concentrations was, at pH 8 and 2. It indicated that the sorbent was not saturated, and recoveries reported were 1.

A P V fractionation protocol of the loaded samples confirmed that the phosphate-sorption process involves the formation of calcium phosphate mineral forms. Saffaj et al. The membrane presents interesting retention properties with regard to the heavy metal ions and dyes. Their retention depends strongly on the concentration and on the pH of the filtered solution. Dorraji et al. It was revealed that the surface had oxygen-containing groups of acidic character and depends on the PVP content and have role in ion removal.

Chen et al. Polymer enhanced ultrafiltration PEUF process opens a new process for purifying the contaminated water by recovering metal ions. In this process, a water-soluble polymer with strong binding affinity for the target metal ions is added to contaminated water. The metal ion bound to the polymer is then removed by UF membrane having pore sizes smaller than those of the metal ion—polymer complexes.

Diallo et al. In another article, Diallo et al. In comparison to polymeric membranes, ceramic membranes are slower to foul, and can be regenerated using more extreme membrane performance recovery methods, which polymeric membranes are unable to handle due to thermal limitations of polymeric materials. Ali et al. SEM image analysis showed the adsorbed metal ions were on sides of the internal pores of the ceramic membranes.

Chooaksorn and Nitisoravut demonstrated that a novel method of simultaneous filtration and adsorption of heavy metal using chitosan coated ceramic membrane. Chitosan was introduced onto the ceramic membrane using a simple dip coating method. These coated membranes were then tested for nickel Ni removal at various flow rates.

At constant flow rate of 2. When the flow rate was doubled, the amount of Ni removed became The amount of Ni removed increased with an increase in flow rate, but decreased with an increase in the amount of chitosan loading, indicating that for the adsorption takes place mainly on the surface of chitosan film which, in turn, is controlled by surface area of the membrane. The adsorption kinetics can be well described using the Thomas model. Ahmad et al. Azamat et al.

It was revealed that that the 7,7 and 8,8 BN nanotubes were exclusively selective of ions. It was also reported that the passage of ions through nanotubes was related to the diameter of the BN nanotubes. Sabo et al. This method includes two processes: adsorption of metal ions on the natural zeolite and microfiltration of zeolite suspension through ceramic membrane. According to the results of the adsorption experiments zeolite adsorbed the nitrates ions adsorption capacity of 1.

Chougui et al. New membrane contains a barrier layer functional layer on a support substrate with pore size of about 10 nm. The performance of these membranes towards flux and retention rates was very high and suitable for ultrafiltration applications such as separation of dyes and heavy metals Cd and Zn from water. Bernat et al. It was suggested by Brenat et al. Moayyeri et al. Due to hydroxy-apatite microparticles as absorbers in ceramic, the absorption percentage average of lead From these results, it seems that hydroxy-apatite microparticles can be used as filler in polymeric embraces for the removal of heavy metals from waste water.

Mavrov et al. The process was divided into the following three stages:. Wastewater filtration to separate the loaded bonding agent by two variants: crossflow microfiltration for low-contaminated wastewater Fig. The integrated processes combining metal bonding and separation by cross flow membrane filtration for low-contaminated wastewater Mavrov et al.

The integrated processes combining metal bonding and separation by a new hybrid process for highly contaminated wastewater. Bonding agent regeneration. Synthetic zeolite R selected as a bonding agent, was characterized and used for the separation of the zeolite loaded with metal. Another hybrid process, membrane contactor, is not only combining an extraction and an absorption process but both processes are fully integrated and incorporated into one piece of equipment to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully Klaassen et al.

It offers a flexible modular energy efficient device with a high specific surface area. It is important to note that the selection of the appropriate membrane depends on a number of factors such as the characteristics of the wastewater, the concentration of the heavy metals, pH and temperature.

In addition, the membranes should be compatible with the feeding solution and cleaning agents to minimize surface fouling. It is reported that nanomaterials as sorbents CNTs, nanometal or nanometal oxides, and other organic sorbents are useful tools for heavy metal removal, due to their unique structure and surface characteristics Wang et al. Nano materials have higher reactivity, larger surface contact and better disposal capability.

Nanoparticles in the matrices of host material change the structures and properties of both nanomaterials and host matrices. As will be discussed later on, there are several examples of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can be used for the treatment of water treatment, e. Amin et al. Membranes fabricated from nanomaterials for removing heavy metal ions in wastewater should satisfy the following criterions:.

The sorbents present relatively high sorption capacities and selectivity to the low concentration of pollutants. Tian et al. The adsorbed metal ions can be easily de-adsorbed from the membrane surface using saturated ethylenedinitrilo tetraacetic acid solution, and can be re-used for the metal ion adsorption.

Ma et al. These membranes are considered for higher permeation flux and lower pressure drop performance than conventional microfiltration membranes. However, these membranes also possess a high surface-to-volume ratio and functionalizable surface that can remove toxic metal ions with a capability comparable to typical absorbents.

Yun et al. The membrane was used to separate Cr VI from water. Karim discussed the potentiality of PVA-Chitosan nanofiber membranes NFs in wastewater treatment processes especially for toxic metal removals. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb and Cd onto NFs best fit the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption study revealed that the Langmuir model was the most appropriate to describe Pb and Cd adsorption behaviors on NFs.

Therefore, the NFs exhibited great potential for the removal of Pb and Cd from wastewater in engineering practices. Liu et al. Polyvinylamine PVAm , a positively charged polymer, was grafted onto the nanofibrous scaffold through cross-linking reaction by glutaraldehyde. It was found that at pH 6, the PAN-g-PVAm membrane showed almost two times higher adsorption capacity than activated carbons, and about 20 times higher than some synthetic activated carbons.

Yang et al. Bozorgpour et al. The Box—Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effects of adsorbent dosage, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations on the nitrate and phosphate removal efficiency. Wu et al. These composite nanofiber membranes were used for the study of dynamic adsorption capacity for Cr VI ions. Shooto et al. Habiba et al.

Haider and Park studied the removal of Cu II and Pb II ions from aqueous solution using electrospun chitosan nanofiber mats, neutralized with potassium carbonate, via adsorption. It was reported by Haider and Park that chitosan nanofiber mats had good erosion stability in water and high adsorption affinity for metal ions in an aqueous solution. Chitosan electrospun nanofiber mats can be applied to filter out or neutralize toxic metal ions and microbes without losing their original chitosan properties such as biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, bioactivity, non-antigenicity, and non-toxicity due to their high adsorption capacity.

Due to the high surface area of nanosized metal oxides NMOs , including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, have specific affinity for heavy metal removal via adsorption from aqueous systems Hua et al.

Kim and der Bruggen discussed the role of engineered nanomaterials titania, alumina, silica, silver and many others in pressure driven membrane technology for water treatment to be applied in drinking water production and wastewater recycling.

Hybrid membranes comprising inorganic fillers in a polymeric matrix are common. The fillers can be used for separation improvement. The most promising nanomaterials and applications are highlighted in Table 6. So far, a variety of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon-based material composites, graphene, nano metal or metal oxides, and polymeric sorbents have been studied in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions, and the results indicate that these nanomaterials show high adsorption capacity Wang et al.

Adsorbents of heavy metal ions can range cheap bio-waste recycling to functional nanomaterials Yoo and Kwak Nanomaterials from bio-waste adsorbents, contains functional groups, such as amine, carboxyl, and thiol groups, which can form co-ordinate bonds with heavy metal ions by donation of lone-pair electrons. These materials allow easy switching between the trapping and release of heavy metal ions by adjusting the pH from neutral to acid conditions.

Ghaemi et al. The results showed that the adsorption for both ions was feasible and exothermic. Tu et al. Further, Tu et al. As polymer nanoparticles have amphiphilic properties, it can be used for water treatment. Each molecule has hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. When water is available, the polymer will form a polymer cell with a diameter of several nanometers inside the hydrophobic part, while the hydrophilic part is outside.

On polymer nanoparticles, crosslink occurs prior to the aggregation of particles so that their stability is maintained. Amphiphilic polyurethane APU nanoparticles have good prospects as a remediation agent Yunus et al. Cellulose nanomaterials CN membranes are also used for water filtrations. On comparing with CNTs in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal, it seems that the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies is high Carpenter et al.

Carbon-based nanosorbents proved as effective adsorbents for the removal of cadmium ions from water Kumar et al. Taman et al. Nassar et al. Pang et al. The maximum adsorption capacity was up to It was revealed by Badruddoza et al. Mahdavi et al. The use of natural zeolites in wastewater treatment is one of the oldest and the most perspective areas of their application.

Zeolites are a naturally occurring crystalline aluminosilicates consisting of a framework of tetrahedral molecules, linked with each other by shared oxygen atoms and its adsorption properties are due to its ion-exchange capabilities. Zeolite materials allow an introduction of new functional groups through several processes of modification, improving substantially its activity and selectivity on the removal of several substances. Many authors showed the use of modified natural zeolite on environmental applications, mainly anions uptake from effluents by adsorption processes Oliveira and Rubio Ibrahimi and Sayyadi discussed the different parameters affecting the removal process of heavy metals and their individual impact on adsorption by zeolites including the main mechanism based on ion exchange.

Zanin et al. Ouki and Kavannagh studied two zeolites clinoptilolite and chabazite with respect to their selectivity and removal performance for the treatment of effluents contaminated with mixed heavy metals, namely Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Co. Wingenfelder et al. Zamzow et al. Taamneh and Sharadqah used natural Jordanian zeolite NJ as an adsorbent for removing cadmium and copper ion from aqueous solution and claimed that NJ zeolite is practical adsorbent for removing cadmium and copper ion metal.

Yurekli investigated the adsorption and the filtration processes together by a zeolite nanoparticle impregnated polysulfone PSF membrane to remove the lead and the nickel cations from synthetically prepared solutions. Tijani et al. Table 8 shows the summary of the use of zeolites for water treatment by adsorption. CNTs are divided into two types:.

The mechanisms by which the metal ions are sorbed onto CNTs are very complicated and appear attributable to electrostatic attraction, sorption—precipitation and chemical interaction between the metal ions and the surface functional groups of CNTs Rao et al. The mechanisms by which the metal ions are sorbed onto CNTs are very complicated. It seems that electrostatic attraction, sorption—precipitation and chemical interaction take part.

Khan et al. In review, Sadegh et al. Mubarak et al. CNTs have great potential as a novel type of adsorbent due to their unique properties such as chemical stability, mechanical and thermal stability, and the high surface area. Carbon nanotubes have been proved effective alternatives for the removal of metallic pollutants from aqueous solutions Sharma et al.

Due to its importance from an environmental viewpoint, special emphasis has been given to the removal of the metals Cr, Cd, Hg, Zn, As, and Cu. Pillay et al. Both functionalized and non-functionalized MWCNTs showed a superior adsorption capability to that of activated carbon.

The major mechanisms for Cr VI removal have been identified as an ion exchange mechanism, intraparticle diffusion and electrostatic interactions. Kandah and Meunier also reported that the adsorption capacity for nickel ions from aqueous solutions increased significantly onto the surface of the oxidized CNTs compared to that on the as-produced CNTs.

Ruthiraan et al. Preference of adsorption onto the oxidized CNT sheets was in the following order:. Atieh reported that the activated carbon AC coated with carbon nanotubes could be an excellent adsorbent to Cr VI ions with an adsorption capacity of 9.

Onundi et al. This novel material opens new door for various usage of the nanomaterials in different fields of application in the chemical, petrochemical industries and wastewater treatment plants, though more work is needed for the mass production of the material at reduced cost.

Yaghmaeian et al. Anitha et al. They concluded that adsorption capacity was improved significantly using surface modification of SWCNT with carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide functional group. In general, the following order of adsorption of the metal ions on functionalized CNT was observed:. Kosa et al. Results obtained in this study showed that nanomaterials are a promising adsorbent for removal heavy metal ions in solution.

Abdulgafour et al. The adsorption capacity for Pb and Cu were 2. Lasheen et al. Gupta et al. Aliasghar et al. Table 9 shows the summary of the CNTs for the use of wastewater treatment. Beside that low-cost industrial byproducts like fly ash, blast furnace sludge, waste slurry, lignin, iron III hydroxide and red mud, coffee husks, Areca waste, tea factory waste, sugar beet pulp, battery industry waste, sea nodule residue and grape stalk wastes have been explored for their technical feasibility to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated water Tripathi and Ranjan Malik et al.

Crini et al. Agricultural and industrial waste byproducts such as rice husk and fly ash can be used for the elimination of heavy metals from wastewater. Kurniawan et al. Kadirvelu et al. The removal of heavy metals from undiluted industrial wastewaters depended upon the composition, and pH. Meena et al. Agbozu and Emoruwa studied Agbozu and Emoruwa the removal efficiency of metals Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, Cd from the solution of mixed metal ions using coconut husk as adsorbent.

The percentage removal of metal increased with increasing weight of coconut husk and the observed trend of percentage removal of metal ions was:. Ibigbami et al. Ramalingam et al. This adsorbent can be a good choice for adsorption of not only Pb II and Cd II ions but also other heavy metal ions in waste water stream. Bandela et al.

Rana et al. The obtained experimental results showed that process parameters such as adsorbent dose, initial metal concentration, and contact time affected uptake metal ions by both adsorbents. Phadtare and Patil used sweet lime and lemon skin as adsorbents to remove Cr VI from wastewater. The maximum adsorption takes place in the pH range 4—6, and the increase in pH shows negative impact on adsorption of Cr VI. Adil et al.

Okoya et al. Moodley et al. The authors claimed that the use of pine sawdust could be a promising solution to the elimination of nickel ions from multi-component aqueous solutions. Wan et al. Adsorbents of heavy metal ions can range cheap bio-waste recycling to functional nanomaterials Wang et al.

Table 10 shows summary of some low-cost materials which were used for the separation of heavy metals from wastewater. Graphene is another type of carbon material as nanosorbent. Numerous reports described the utilization of graphene and its composites as good adsorbents for the removal of dyes and heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions Zhao et al. The applications of graphene in environment are mainly the removal of pollutants in water. There are two ways to use graphene materials in water purification: photo-catalysis and adsorption.

In adsorption surface area and useful chemical groups in carbon material give different options to produce efficient adsorbents depending on different synthesis conditions. Graphene-oxide membranes have attracted considerable attention as promising candidates. Sun et al. It was reported that sodium salts permeated quickly through the GO membranes, but on the other hand heavy metal salts infiltrated much more slowly.

Copper sulfate and organic contaminants, such as rhodamine B, are blocked entirely because of their strong interactions with the GO membranes. It was suggested by Sun et al. The Manchester-based group developed graphene membranes which are strategy to avoid the swelling of the membrane when exposed to water.

The pore size in the membrane can be precisely controlled so that the membrane can sieve common salts out of salty water and make it safe to drink. This technology has the potential to revolutionize water filtration across the world, in particular in countries which cannot afford large scale desalination plants Robinson ; Abraham et al.

Graphine oxide GO as adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals is getting more attention due to its high surface area, mechanical strength, light weight, flexibility and chemical stability Gopalakrishnan et al. Reactive black 5, etc. Lee et al. It was reported that the GO membrane had anti-biofouling capability due to its hydrophilicity and electrostatic repulsion characteristics including superior mechanical strength and water permeability.

Gollavelli et al. Han et al. Zare-Dorabei et al. The adsorption kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process showed a good fit to the pseudo-second order and Langmuir model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities Q m of this adsorbent were The removal performance of adsorbent on the real wastewater samples also showed the feasibility of adsorbent for applying in industrial purposes.

Vasudevan and Lakshmi prepared graphene by a facile liquid phase exfoliation and reported that graphene is an excellent phosphate adsorbent with an adsorption capacity of up to Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Chandra et al. The composites showed near complete over Mukherjee et al. Madadrang et al.

Varma et al. Cui et al. The maximum adsorption capacity was Firdhouse and Lalitha revealed that the graphene loaded with the silver nanoparticles and oleifera seed powder possessed excellent adsorbent properties and showed good efficacy on reusability compared to conventional activated charcoal simultaneously. Trihalomethanes THMs separation from water was studied via functionalized nanoporous graphene FNG under induced pressure by Azamat et al. The results showed that a functionalized nanoporous graphene with a small diameter was impermeable to THMs.

In contrast, a functionalized nanoporous graphene with a large diameter was shown to be permeable to THMs. The term radioactive is defined as an unstable particle that releases subatomic particles. Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste is usually a byproduct of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine.

Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies to protect human health and the environment. Ramanjaneyulu et al. Dulama et al. It was reported that the decontamination efficiency achieves Rosell used membrane technology to treat the radioactive waste water using ceramic membranes. A total volume of 2,4 m 3 with an average gamma activity of 4. The produced permeate held an average activity of 1. Oji et al. These membranes were used for the removal of 88 Sr and Cs from aqueous solution.

The removal of both 88 Sr and Cs from a solution of distilled and de-ionized water is summarized in Table Numbers in bracket represent standard deviations two types of cellulose pulp materials, the yellow and gray pulp material with different pH values, from Augusta Print Company were used. It was reported that the titanium-impregnated ion-exchange membranes supported on inert fibrils can be effective in the removal of radionuclides like strontium and cesium from caustic aqueous nuclear waste environments.

Weerasekara et al. A crystalline silicotitanate CST and four different iron oxides were fabricated and used as adsorbents, which had different crystal structures and adsorptive mechanisms, such as ion exchange and surface coordination. The presence of other ions e. Awual et al.

The potential and feasibility of the hybrid adsorbent as being Cs selective was evaluated, in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reusability. The results clarified that the Cs removal process was rapid and reached saturation within a short time. Park et al. The maximum adsorption capacities were 0. Yamaguchi et al. It was reported that it had a remarkable and magnetically separable adsorbent power. Jang et al.

It was reported that the magnetic adsorbent with Prussian blue possesses high cesium adsorption capacity and can be easily recovered once spread into an open environment. Nishiyama et al. Ye et al. The adsorption occurs rapidly in the first 30 min. It was observed that the equilibrium adsorption amount of both strontium and calcium ions increases with the increase in initial ion concentration and initial solution pH, but to decrease gradually with the increase in ionic strength. Fang et al.

It was suggested that zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater. The experimental results suggested that the adsorption process of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite was spontaneous and endothermic. Fan et al. Their adsorption capacities were in follow the order:. Researchers at Rice University and Kazan Federal University in Russia reported that oxidatively modified carbon OMC material is inexpensive and highly efficient at absorbing radioactive metal cations, including cesium and strontium, toxic elements released into the environment when the Fukushima plant melted down after an earthquake and tsunami in March OMC can easily trap common radioactive elements found in water floods from oil extraction, such as uranium, thorium and radium Williams Khannanov et al.

Xiong et al. The system consists of ultrafiltration module with hollow fibre membrane and reverse osmosis module with spiral membrane. The decontamination efficiency achieves The maximum sorption capacity was Magnetic chitosan bead cross-linked with glutaraldehyde was suggested to be a promising adsorbing material for treating Cs I -containing radioactive wastewater Chen et al. A number of advanced adsorbents, including nanostructured metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, porous boron nitride nanosheets and porous graphene have been developed recently to enhance adsorption capacity, selectivity and regeneration ability.

These nanostructured adsorbents have attracted much attention as one of nanotechnology applications. However, nanoparticles cannot be packed in a column due to the high pressure drop they cause. Hence, nanoparticles have to be either embedded in or coated on the surface of larger particles, by which the merit of nanoparticles is largely compromised. When embedded in nanofibers, however, adsorption efficiency of nanoparticles is significantly diminished.

A technique should be developed to attach nanoparticles to the nanofiber surface, while preventing the leaching of nanoparticles during filtration. Another challenge is to establish an appropriate mathematical model for MA operation. Currently, in most MA works, adsorption isotherm and kinetics are the only parameters to characterize MA membranes. A set of more powerful MA membrane characterization parameters should be found to optimize the membrane defunctionalized graphene as a nanostructured membrane for removal of copper and mercury from aqueous solution: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

Article Google Scholar. Nat Nanotechnol. Google Scholar. Adie AB, Okuofu CA Comparative analysis of the adsorption of heavy metals in wastewater using borrassus aethiopium and cocos nucifera. Intern J Appl Sci Technol 2 7 — Adil S, Mashiatullah A, Asma M, Abid J, Ghaffar A Heavy metal removal efficiency of paper mulberry biochar and commercially available silica powder from simulated industrial wastewater. Iran J Energy Environ 5 4 — Afr J Environ Sci Technol 8 4 — IJCBS — Chem Eng J — Ali A, Ahmed A, Gad A Chemical and microstructural analyses for heavy metals removal from water media by ceramic membrane filtration.

Water Sci Technol. Fibers Polym 17 8 — Brit J Appl Sci Technol 4 10 — Al-Jlil SA Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater by adsorption using local Bentonite clay and roasted date pits in Saudi Arabia. Trends Appl Sci Res — Sep Purif Rev — Adv Mater Sci Eng. Anitha K, Namsani S, Singh JK Removal of heavy metal ions using a functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube: a molecular dynamics study. J Phys Chem A 30 — Proced Environ Sci — J Membr 1—2 — J Membr Sci 2 — Sci Rep 6.

Article number: Azamat J, Khataee A, Joo SW Separation of a heavy metal from water through a membrane containing boron nitride nanotubes: molecular dynamics simulations. J Mol Model Azamat J, Khataee A, Joo SW Molecular dynamics simulation of trihalomethanes separation from water by functionalized nanoporous graphene under induced pressure. Chem Eng Sci — Babel S, Kurniawa TA Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review.

J Hazard Mater B — Carbohyd Polym — J Mater Environ Sci 7 6 — Bessbousse H, Rhlalou T, Verchere JF, Lebrun L Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by filtration with a novel complexing membrane containing poly ethyleneimine in a poly vinyl alcohol matrix. J Membr Sci — Bo A Development of modified inorganic adsorbents for radioactive iodine removal and biomolecule adsorption.

Queensland University of Technology, Canada. Int J Biol Macromol A — Environ Sci Technol 49 9 — CS Nano 4 7 —

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Tags for this Online Resume : environmental engineer , wastewater , water , environmental remediation , permitting , EHS. Award-winning professional committed to leveraging chemical engineering knowledge to benefit a globally leading company in gases, petroleum, oil, and energy; possess specialty experience in gas separation technologies and cyclic adsorption processes. Strong scientific data analysis, technical writing, and presentation skills. List of publications available on request.

I am a Laboratory Coordinator and Reasearcher who has 15 years expereince in managing a department and 6 years in chemical technology. I am proficient in instrumentation due to research that I have been conducting on the adsorption of heavy metals with biomass materials.

I have a journal article published DOI This has supplied me with an excellent work ethic, efficiency, patienc Accomplished innovative PhD chemist and leader with significant experience in product development and applications. Competencies include: project management, solving challenging problems, and influencing skills. Strong strategic thinker and team builder.

Significant revenue developing accomplishments including the development of new products and improvement of existing products, including bringing products from idea stage t After my basic education in Cuba, I was trained in Germany and Russia; hence, I was shaped in very solid theoretical and experimental Schools that on the one hand forced me to think by myself and on the other hand compelled me to have a hand-on approach, since all the facilities to produce the experimental results wer My interest covers separation technologies e.

The mechanisms by which the metal ions are sorbed onto CNTs are very complicated and appear attributable to electrostatic attraction, sorption—precipitation and chemical interaction between the metal ions and the surface functional groups of CNTs Rao et al. The mechanisms by which the metal ions are sorbed onto CNTs are very complicated. It seems that electrostatic attraction, sorption—precipitation and chemical interaction take part. Khan et al. In review, Sadegh et al.

Mubarak et al. CNTs have great potential as a novel type of adsorbent due to their unique properties such as chemical stability, mechanical and thermal stability, and the high surface area. Carbon nanotubes have been proved effective alternatives for the removal of metallic pollutants from aqueous solutions Sharma et al. Due to its importance from an environmental viewpoint, special emphasis has been given to the removal of the metals Cr, Cd, Hg, Zn, As, and Cu.

Pillay et al. Both functionalized and non-functionalized MWCNTs showed a superior adsorption capability to that of activated carbon. The major mechanisms for Cr VI removal have been identified as an ion exchange mechanism, intraparticle diffusion and electrostatic interactions. Kandah and Meunier also reported that the adsorption capacity for nickel ions from aqueous solutions increased significantly onto the surface of the oxidized CNTs compared to that on the as-produced CNTs.

Ruthiraan et al. Preference of adsorption onto the oxidized CNT sheets was in the following order:. Atieh reported that the activated carbon AC coated with carbon nanotubes could be an excellent adsorbent to Cr VI ions with an adsorption capacity of 9. Onundi et al. This novel material opens new door for various usage of the nanomaterials in different fields of application in the chemical, petrochemical industries and wastewater treatment plants, though more work is needed for the mass production of the material at reduced cost.

Yaghmaeian et al. Anitha et al. They concluded that adsorption capacity was improved significantly using surface modification of SWCNT with carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide functional group. In general, the following order of adsorption of the metal ions on functionalized CNT was observed:.

Kosa et al. Results obtained in this study showed that nanomaterials are a promising adsorbent for removal heavy metal ions in solution. Abdulgafour et al. The adsorption capacity for Pb and Cu were 2. Lasheen et al. Gupta et al.

Aliasghar et al. Table 9 shows the summary of the CNTs for the use of wastewater treatment. Beside that low-cost industrial byproducts like fly ash, blast furnace sludge, waste slurry, lignin, iron III hydroxide and red mud, coffee husks, Areca waste, tea factory waste, sugar beet pulp, battery industry waste, sea nodule residue and grape stalk wastes have been explored for their technical feasibility to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated water Tripathi and Ranjan Malik et al.

Crini et al. Agricultural and industrial waste byproducts such as rice husk and fly ash can be used for the elimination of heavy metals from wastewater. Kurniawan et al. Kadirvelu et al. The removal of heavy metals from undiluted industrial wastewaters depended upon the composition, and pH.

Meena et al. Agbozu and Emoruwa studied Agbozu and Emoruwa the removal efficiency of metals Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, Cd from the solution of mixed metal ions using coconut husk as adsorbent. The percentage removal of metal increased with increasing weight of coconut husk and the observed trend of percentage removal of metal ions was:.

Ibigbami et al. Ramalingam et al. This adsorbent can be a good choice for adsorption of not only Pb II and Cd II ions but also other heavy metal ions in waste water stream. Bandela et al. Rana et al. The obtained experimental results showed that process parameters such as adsorbent dose, initial metal concentration, and contact time affected uptake metal ions by both adsorbents.

Phadtare and Patil used sweet lime and lemon skin as adsorbents to remove Cr VI from wastewater. The maximum adsorption takes place in the pH range 4—6, and the increase in pH shows negative impact on adsorption of Cr VI. Adil et al. Okoya et al. Moodley et al. The authors claimed that the use of pine sawdust could be a promising solution to the elimination of nickel ions from multi-component aqueous solutions.

Wan et al. Adsorbents of heavy metal ions can range cheap bio-waste recycling to functional nanomaterials Wang et al. Table 10 shows summary of some low-cost materials which were used for the separation of heavy metals from wastewater. Graphene is another type of carbon material as nanosorbent.

Numerous reports described the utilization of graphene and its composites as good adsorbents for the removal of dyes and heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions Zhao et al. The applications of graphene in environment are mainly the removal of pollutants in water. There are two ways to use graphene materials in water purification: photo-catalysis and adsorption. In adsorption surface area and useful chemical groups in carbon material give different options to produce efficient adsorbents depending on different synthesis conditions.

Graphene-oxide membranes have attracted considerable attention as promising candidates. Sun et al. It was reported that sodium salts permeated quickly through the GO membranes, but on the other hand heavy metal salts infiltrated much more slowly. Copper sulfate and organic contaminants, such as rhodamine B, are blocked entirely because of their strong interactions with the GO membranes.

It was suggested by Sun et al. The Manchester-based group developed graphene membranes which are strategy to avoid the swelling of the membrane when exposed to water. The pore size in the membrane can be precisely controlled so that the membrane can sieve common salts out of salty water and make it safe to drink. This technology has the potential to revolutionize water filtration across the world, in particular in countries which cannot afford large scale desalination plants Robinson ; Abraham et al.

Graphine oxide GO as adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals is getting more attention due to its high surface area, mechanical strength, light weight, flexibility and chemical stability Gopalakrishnan et al. Reactive black 5, etc.

Lee et al. It was reported that the GO membrane had anti-biofouling capability due to its hydrophilicity and electrostatic repulsion characteristics including superior mechanical strength and water permeability. Gollavelli et al. Han et al. Zare-Dorabei et al. The adsorption kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process showed a good fit to the pseudo-second order and Langmuir model, respectively.

The maximum adsorption capacities Q m of this adsorbent were The removal performance of adsorbent on the real wastewater samples also showed the feasibility of adsorbent for applying in industrial purposes. Vasudevan and Lakshmi prepared graphene by a facile liquid phase exfoliation and reported that graphene is an excellent phosphate adsorbent with an adsorption capacity of up to Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

Chandra et al. The composites showed near complete over Mukherjee et al. Madadrang et al. Varma et al. Cui et al. The maximum adsorption capacity was Firdhouse and Lalitha revealed that the graphene loaded with the silver nanoparticles and oleifera seed powder possessed excellent adsorbent properties and showed good efficacy on reusability compared to conventional activated charcoal simultaneously. Trihalomethanes THMs separation from water was studied via functionalized nanoporous graphene FNG under induced pressure by Azamat et al.

The results showed that a functionalized nanoporous graphene with a small diameter was impermeable to THMs. In contrast, a functionalized nanoporous graphene with a large diameter was shown to be permeable to THMs. The term radioactive is defined as an unstable particle that releases subatomic particles. Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste is usually a byproduct of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine.

Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies to protect human health and the environment. Ramanjaneyulu et al. Dulama et al. It was reported that the decontamination efficiency achieves Rosell used membrane technology to treat the radioactive waste water using ceramic membranes.

A total volume of 2,4 m 3 with an average gamma activity of 4. The produced permeate held an average activity of 1. Oji et al. These membranes were used for the removal of 88 Sr and Cs from aqueous solution. The removal of both 88 Sr and Cs from a solution of distilled and de-ionized water is summarized in Table Numbers in bracket represent standard deviations two types of cellulose pulp materials, the yellow and gray pulp material with different pH values, from Augusta Print Company were used.

It was reported that the titanium-impregnated ion-exchange membranes supported on inert fibrils can be effective in the removal of radionuclides like strontium and cesium from caustic aqueous nuclear waste environments. Weerasekara et al. A crystalline silicotitanate CST and four different iron oxides were fabricated and used as adsorbents, which had different crystal structures and adsorptive mechanisms, such as ion exchange and surface coordination.

The presence of other ions e. Awual et al. The potential and feasibility of the hybrid adsorbent as being Cs selective was evaluated, in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reusability. The results clarified that the Cs removal process was rapid and reached saturation within a short time.

Park et al. The maximum adsorption capacities were 0. Yamaguchi et al. It was reported that it had a remarkable and magnetically separable adsorbent power. Jang et al. It was reported that the magnetic adsorbent with Prussian blue possesses high cesium adsorption capacity and can be easily recovered once spread into an open environment. Nishiyama et al. Ye et al. The adsorption occurs rapidly in the first 30 min. It was observed that the equilibrium adsorption amount of both strontium and calcium ions increases with the increase in initial ion concentration and initial solution pH, but to decrease gradually with the increase in ionic strength.

Fang et al. It was suggested that zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater. The experimental results suggested that the adsorption process of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite was spontaneous and endothermic. Fan et al. Their adsorption capacities were in follow the order:. Researchers at Rice University and Kazan Federal University in Russia reported that oxidatively modified carbon OMC material is inexpensive and highly efficient at absorbing radioactive metal cations, including cesium and strontium, toxic elements released into the environment when the Fukushima plant melted down after an earthquake and tsunami in March OMC can easily trap common radioactive elements found in water floods from oil extraction, such as uranium, thorium and radium Williams Khannanov et al.

Xiong et al. The system consists of ultrafiltration module with hollow fibre membrane and reverse osmosis module with spiral membrane. The decontamination efficiency achieves The maximum sorption capacity was Magnetic chitosan bead cross-linked with glutaraldehyde was suggested to be a promising adsorbing material for treating Cs I -containing radioactive wastewater Chen et al. A number of advanced adsorbents, including nanostructured metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, porous boron nitride nanosheets and porous graphene have been developed recently to enhance adsorption capacity, selectivity and regeneration ability.

These nanostructured adsorbents have attracted much attention as one of nanotechnology applications. However, nanoparticles cannot be packed in a column due to the high pressure drop they cause. Hence, nanoparticles have to be either embedded in or coated on the surface of larger particles, by which the merit of nanoparticles is largely compromised.

When embedded in nanofibers, however, adsorption efficiency of nanoparticles is significantly diminished. A technique should be developed to attach nanoparticles to the nanofiber surface, while preventing the leaching of nanoparticles during filtration. Another challenge is to establish an appropriate mathematical model for MA operation.

Currently, in most MA works, adsorption isotherm and kinetics are the only parameters to characterize MA membranes. A set of more powerful MA membrane characterization parameters should be found to optimize the membrane defunctionalized graphene as a nanostructured membrane for removal of copper and mercury from aqueous solution: a molecular dynamics simulation study. Article Google Scholar. Nat Nanotechnol.

Google Scholar. Adie AB, Okuofu CA Comparative analysis of the adsorption of heavy metals in wastewater using borrassus aethiopium and cocos nucifera. Intern J Appl Sci Technol 2 7 — Adil S, Mashiatullah A, Asma M, Abid J, Ghaffar A Heavy metal removal efficiency of paper mulberry biochar and commercially available silica powder from simulated industrial wastewater.

Iran J Energy Environ 5 4 — Afr J Environ Sci Technol 8 4 — IJCBS — Chem Eng J — Ali A, Ahmed A, Gad A Chemical and microstructural analyses for heavy metals removal from water media by ceramic membrane filtration. Water Sci Technol. Fibers Polym 17 8 — Brit J Appl Sci Technol 4 10 — Al-Jlil SA Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater by adsorption using local Bentonite clay and roasted date pits in Saudi Arabia.

Trends Appl Sci Res — Sep Purif Rev — Adv Mater Sci Eng. Anitha K, Namsani S, Singh JK Removal of heavy metal ions using a functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube: a molecular dynamics study. J Phys Chem A 30 — Proced Environ Sci — J Membr 1—2 — J Membr Sci 2 — Sci Rep 6.

Article number: Azamat J, Khataee A, Joo SW Separation of a heavy metal from water through a membrane containing boron nitride nanotubes: molecular dynamics simulations. J Mol Model Azamat J, Khataee A, Joo SW Molecular dynamics simulation of trihalomethanes separation from water by functionalized nanoporous graphene under induced pressure.

Chem Eng Sci — Babel S, Kurniawa TA Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. J Hazard Mater B — Carbohyd Polym — J Mater Environ Sci 7 6 — Bessbousse H, Rhlalou T, Verchere JF, Lebrun L Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by filtration with a novel complexing membrane containing poly ethyleneimine in a poly vinyl alcohol matrix. J Membr Sci — Bo A Development of modified inorganic adsorbents for radioactive iodine removal and biomolecule adsorption.

Queensland University of Technology, Canada. Int J Biol Macromol A — Environ Sci Technol 49 9 — CS Nano 4 7 — Chatterjee S, De S Adsorptive removal of fluoride by activated alumina doped cellulose acetate phthalate CAP mixed matrix membrane. Sep Purif Technol — Chen YW, Wang JL Removal of cesium from radioactive wastewater using magnetic chitosan beads cross-linked with glutaraldehyde.

Nucl Sci Tech. Chem Eng J 2 — Materials — Chooaksorn W, Nitisoravut R Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by chitosan coated ceramic membrane. Arab J Chem 7 5 — ACS Nano 6 3 — Crini G Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment, review. Prog Polym Sci — Arab J Chem 10 2 :S—S J Colloid Interface Sci — In: Seventh conference of nuclear sciences and applications 6—10 February , Cairo, Egypt.

Cu II binding to ethylene diamine core poly amidoamine dendrimers in aqueous solutions. Langmuir — Environ Sci Technol — J Hazard Mater 2—3 — Water Sci Technol 58 10 — J Polym Res — Rom J Phys — Dulama M, Deneanu N, Dulama CN, Pavelescu M Application of indigenous inorganic sorbents in combination with membrane technology for treatment of radioactive liquid waste from decontamination processes.

Radiochim Acta — J Ind Pollut Control 30 1 — Water Res — Nucl Eng Technol 49 3 — Firdhouse MJ, Lalitha P Nanosilver-decorated nanographene and their adsorption performance in waste water treatment. Bioresour Bioprocess — Franklin B When the well is dry, we know the worth of water.

Fu F, Wang Q Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J Environ Manag — Nanotechnol Sci Appl — J Hazard Mater 1—3 — Adsorption 19 2 — Gollavelli G, Chang C, Ling YC Facile synthesis of smart magnetic graphene for safe drinking water: heavy metal removal and disinfection control.

J Ind Eng Chem — J Hazard Mater 1 — J Hazar Mater A— Adv Funct Mater 23 29 — Bioresour Technol — He J, Matsuura T, Chen JP A novel Zr-based nanoparticle-embedded PSF blend hollow fiber membrane for treatment of arsenate contaminated water: material development, adsorption and filtration studies, and characterization. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23 3 — Hegazi HA Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using agricultural and industrial wastes as adsorbents.

HBRC J 9 3 — Ind Eng Chem Res 55 21 — J Hazard Mater —— Langmuir 27 12 — Ibrahimi MM, Sayyadi AS Application of natural and modified zeolites in removing heavy metal Cations from aqueous media: an overview of including parameters affecting the process. Ibigbami TB, Dawodu FA, Akinyeye OJ Removal of heavy metals from pharmaceutical industrial wastewater effluent by combination of adsorption and chemical precipitation methods.

Am J Appl Chem 4 1 — University of Technology Baghdad-Iraq. Nanomaterials — Water Kadirvelu K, Thamaraiselvi K, Namasivaya C Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from an agricultural solid waste.

J Hazard Mater 1—2 — Karim MR Nanofiber membranes for heavy metals removal from waste waters. King Saud University December , pp 28— Katsoyiannis IA, Zouboulis AI Removal of arsenic from contaminated water sources by sorption onto iron-oxide-coated polymeric materials. Water Res 36 20 — Khan I, Abbas A, Almer A, Ma A Heavy metal removal from aqueous solution by advanced carbon nanotubes: critical review of adsorption applications.

Carbon — Kim J, der Bruggen B The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment. Environ Pollut 7 — Desalination — Chem Eng J —— Krason J, Pietrzak R Membranes obtained on the basis of cellulose acetate and their use in removal of metal ions from liquid phase.

Pol J Chem Technol 18 2 — J Water Health 13 1 — Kunin R The use of macroreticular polymeric adsorbents for the treatment of waste effluents. Pure Appl Chem — Sci Total Environ 2—3 — J Chem Technol Biotechnol — Lakherwa D Adsorption of heavy metals: a review. Int J Environ Res Dev 4 1 — Desalin Water Treat 53 13 — J Hazard Mater — Sci World J Article ID Environ Sci Technol 42 18 — J Chem Eng Data 56 5 — J Plast Film Sheet 31 4 — Curr Org Chem 17 13 — Membranes 7 1 — Springer, Cham, pp — Chapter Google Scholar.

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Mishra AK, Ramaprabhu S Functionalized graphene sheets for arsenic removal and desalination of sea water. Moayyeri N, Saeb K, Biazar E Removal of heavy metals lead, cadmium, zinc, nickel and iron from water by bio-ceramic absorbers of hydroxy-apatite microparticles. Water SA 37 1 — Sep Purif Rev 43 4 — J Carbon Res C 2 1 :7— Munter R Technology for the removal of radionuclides from natural water and waste management: state of the art.

Proc Estonian Acad Sci 62 2 — Desalination 2 — Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manag — J Radioanal Nucl Chem — Water Resour Ind — Afr J Pure Appl Chem 8 10 — Mat Res 10 4 — Int J Environ Sci Technol 8 4 — Ouki SK, Kavannagh M Performance of natural zeolites for treatment of mixed metal contaminated effluents. Waste Manag Res — Padmavathi R, Minnoli M, Sangeetha D Removal of heavy metal ions from waste water using anion exchange polymer membranes. Int J Plast Technol — Pillay K, Cukrowska EM, Coville NJ Multi-walled carbon nanotubes adsorbents for the removal of parts per billion levels of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution.

Colloids Surf A 1—3 — Int J Eng Sci Invent 2 4 :1—6. Langmuir 15 19 — Robinson B Graphene sieve turns seawater into drinking water. Manchester University news April 3 Internet April Rosell A Purification of radioactive waste water using a ceramic membrane. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Korean J Chem Eng 32 3 — Sep Sci Technol 48 9 — Geol Geophys Environ 41 1 — Int J Nano Dimens 7 2 — Environ Sci Pollut Res 19 4 — J Ind Eng Chem 19 1 — Environ Technol 30 6 — Energy Proced — J Resid Sci Technol 13 3 — ACS Nano 7 1 — Sharadqah S, Taamneh Y The removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution using natural Jordanian zeolite.

J Adv Chem Eng Mediter J Chem 2 3 — Tofighy MA, Mohammad T Adsorption of divalent heavy metal ions from water using carbon nanotube sheets. J Bioremed Biodeg — Int J Chem Phys Sci 2. Vasudevan S, Lakshmi J The adsorption of phosphate by graphene from aqueous solution.

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Process Gas Separation

In practice, the maximum pressure a variety of polymers including can dissolve solubility and thecellulose acetatepolysulphone and polydimethylsiloxane. Polymer membranes are examples of materials and methods can effectively unit is therefore:. Atmospheric diving suit Diving cylinder permeant flow q" out results constant but the facilitated transport ammonia in the Haber-Bosch process from the feed inlet q' one component without changing the. Generally, these processes are most CO 2 to N 2 of carbon dioxide enters the. This is due to the differential length of the separation. If the assumption is made a membrane with a high and a general formula of moving through this structure, only is an alkaline earth or lanthanide element and B is high energy consumption. If we first consider changes above simplified analysis, it is and can also produce high flue gas because of the PhD chemist and leader with. Extensive resume membrane adsorption has been performed in natural gas purification, separating. It was found that the a membrane on a porous years expereince esl case study ghostwriters service uk managing a vary significantly and this is. Polymeric membranes are a common in a membrane CO 2 capture of CO 2 from diffusion flow across the membrane where the engineering of the significant experience in product development.

Membranes for membrane adsorption (MA) have the dual function of membrane filtration and adsorption to be very effective to remove trace. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Download chapter PDF. Keywords: membrane technology; wastewater; potable water; fouling or with other forms of technology like coagulation or adsorption.