thesis on risk management in banks in india

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Thesis on risk management in banks in india

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In the past few years, greater market integration and financial innovation have led to rapid growth in bank loans. These developments increased the reliance of banks on wholesale volatile funding including securitization. More stable sources of funding such as retail deposits declined in importance.

To manage its liquidity needs the bank can raise liquidity on the liability side or act on the asset side. The bank can hold high quality liquid assets and draw on them in the event of liquidity shortage. Of course, liquid assets offer lower returns. Thus, holding more liquid assets and better matching cash-flows of assets and liabilities will reduce the liquidity risk of the bank and protect it from insolvency but also reduce its profitability.

Liquidity management, therefore, involves finding the right balance between liquidity risk and profitability. The recent crisis has proven that banks held insufficient liquid assets and assets that they thought were liquid turned out not to be as trading stopped.

In this paper, we present a partial equilibrium model for the management of liquidity by a bank that faces uncertain withdrawal of funds withdrawal of deposits and utilization of loans commitments as well as the possibility of an exogenous market liquidity crisis. We relate liquidity risk to risk of default of the bank due to credit risk.

Using a cash-flow approach we obtain explicit results concerning optimal liquidity risk management and the factors that affect it. A key feature of our model is the composition of the balance sheet: we relate liquid short term assets to volatile rate-sensitive liabilities where the difference between the two is the net liquidity position of the bank deficit or surplus and is a measure of its exposure to liquidity risk.

The main results of our model is that liquidity deficit withdrawal of funds net of liquid assets of the bank will increase when competition in the loan market increases, while increasing interest rate sensitivity in the deposit market will decrease the liquidity deficit. We offer an interpretation of interest rate sensitivity as a measure of market discipline that is affected by risk aversion of investors in the market.

This is compatible with the observed increased liquidity risk faced by banks due to the recent developments in financial markets such as consolidation, deregulation, and financial innovation that have affected competition and risk taking by financial institutions. I Help to Study Useful information for students. Search Search. Liquidity risk management in banks thesis proposal.

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But plath s poems or found in chapter. He has presented them. Though, some Microfinance Institutions MFI does not take deposit, but operate through grants and donor fund. However, majority of them MFI are deposit taking organization just like a conventional bank. Hence, as a result of accepting deposit and giving of credit, the MFI are therefore exposed to risks that are inherent in their line of business. In order to prevent the occurrence of distress in financial sector as experienced by conventional banks in some countries in the past, risk management in MFI need to be considered now.

According to Oluyombo and Ogundimu , MFI are not bank, even though, some seems to work like banks while others may be called Microfinance Bank MFB , but their services and products are peculiar and targeted to the low income earners. Hence, the need for overview of microfinance before risk issue is examined. According to Asian Development Bank , microfinance is the provision of a broad range of financial services such as deposits, loans, payment services, money transfers, and insurance to poor and low-income households and their micro enterprises.

Microfinance services are provided by three types of sources: formal institutions, such as rural banks and cooperatives; semiformal institutions, such as non-governmental organizations; and informal sources such as money lenders and shopkeepers. Institutional microfinance is defined to include microfinance services provided by both formal and semi-formal institutions. Microfinance institutions are defined as institutions whose major business is the provision of microfinance services.

Otero and Rhyne defines microfinance as a revolution that involves the large scale provision of small loans and deposit services to low-income people by secure, conveniently located and competing commercial financial institutions thereby generating the process needed to democratize capital. This definition means that the numbers of microfinance institutions should be enough to meet the needs of low income earners in the nation through the provision of loan facilities and to give room for healthy competition among them.

Robinson described microfinance as small-scale financial services-primarily credit and savings-provided to people who farm or fish or herd; who operate small enterprises or micro enterprises where goods are produced, recycled, repaired or sold; who provide services; who work for wages or commissions; who gain income from renting out small amounts of land, vehicles, draft animals, or machinery and tools; and to other individuals and groups at the local levels of developing countries both rural and urban.

Microfinance has been described as an economic development approach intended to benefit low-income women and men. Ledgerwood It means that the purpose of microfinance is to reach the low income earners either in the urban or rural areas with financial services that will enable them create wealth without any discrepancy as to the sex of such person.

Ndiaye opined that access to improved financial services — access to more and better ways of turning savings into lump sums — helps poor people from sliding deeper into poverty and helps them lay foundations for their ambitions to better themselves and their families. Microfinance is about providing financial services to the poor who are traditionally not served by the conventional financial institutions.

Three features distinguish microfinance from other formal financial products. These are: i the smallness of loans advanced and or savings collected ii the absence of asset-based collateral, and iii simplicity of operations.

Central Bank of Nigeria This give a clue that the CBN is aware that there are people that are not served by the conventional banks because the loan requires by them is very small compare to the activities and loan portfolio of these banks.

Microfinance institution is now a growing phenomenon all over the world. It is emerging as a rapidly growing financial services industry worldwide as a solution to the crippling effects of the conventional banks interest on the poor and those operating micro and small scale enterprises MSSE.

Microfinance is a holistic approach that has been used in different countries to alleviate the plight of MSSE both in the rural and urban areas in accessing fund as at when required which was not possible from the conventional banks. The smallness of loans advanced to their customers ii. Savings from the customers are very small iii. The absence of asset-based collateral iv. Simplicity of operation v.

The extension of banking services beyond economic to social and cultural upliftment of the people. Development of good inter-personal relationship between the bank and her customers which lead to high degree of trust and openness on both parties. Their products and services are targeted towards MSSE in their locality. Van Horne defines risk as the possibility that the actual return will deviate from that which was expected.

Hence, risks evolve because there is plan that is not met due to unfavourable circumstances or conditions. Risk was also defined as the chance of a loss, or the loss itself. Dunn, Kalaitzandonakes and Valdivia Risk is the probability that the consequence of an event will be different from the original plan due to certain factors and that the outcome may not be in the interest of the planner.

It should be noted that there would be no risk where there is no exposure and uncertainty. Although, their risks names may seems to be the same with other sector of the economy. However, these risks affected MFI in different ways. Risk Factors of Microfinance Institutions The following factors brought about a different risk for MFI compared to other conventional banks. MFI services and products are targeted to the poor and low income earners in the society. Most clients of MFI do not have physical assets house, land, automobile, plant and machinery and financial assets share, bond, stock and debenture certificates to pledge as collateral for loans and advances collected.

There is no supportive regulatory and supervisory policy framework on the part of some government which lead to physical and economic challenges for MFI. Where regulatory framework exists, the peculiarity of MF business in most cases is not taken into consideration. In such country, MFI and other banks are regulated under the same policy. The ownership structure of MFI is dominated by donors in many countries instead of private investors as owners. MFI are dominated by private ownership in Nigeria.

Berenbach and Churchill and Ledgerwood identified four main areas of risks that are peculiar to MFI as: Portfolio risk, Ownership and governance risk, Management risk and New industry risk. Adewunmi recognized risks like: Credit risk, Operational risk, Interest rate risk and Liquidity risk as those affecting financial institutions. However, this paper is of the opinion that Liquidity risk, Credit risk, Foreign exchange risk, Ownership return risk and Operational risk are those that affect MFI directly and they are discussed below.

Figure 1. Some MFI get funds from mandatory legal deposit from banks and government at different levels. For such MFI, a change of government or change in government policy may reduced available fund to MFI considerably, which posses liquidity risk to them.

Liquidity risk will also arise through donor fund which the donors might call back for some period or suspend forever. In such case, the financial base of such MFI will be threatened. Credit Risk Olfield and Santomew opined that credit risk arises from non-performance by a debtor. This can affect the lender who underwrote the contract, other lenders to the creditor, and the debtor's own shareholders. This is the risk associated with default in loan repayment as at when due or the uncertainty of meeting financial obligations by client at the right time.

Credit risk is not limited to unrepaid loans and advances alone, but extend to those loan applications that were turn down by MFI, because it may hinder their growth and cause reduction in size, earnings and profitability. Where the owners of MFI are desirous of getting a sizeable return on their investment in a short time, which is common in a private ownership led businesses; this may lead to unhealthy practice in the operation and management of MFI so that appropriate return can be given to the owners.

Actually, this risk is in force from the inception of MFI except the owners see their investment as part of their modest contribution in alleviating the plight of the poor at the short run before dividends could be declared. However, this is not the case because average investors want adequate return from the investment at shortest possible period, or else, the fund will be invested in another line of business with less risk and better return.